Molecular Pharmacology of Class F Receptor Activation

Journal article

P. Kozielewicz, Ainoleena Turku, G. Schulte
Molecular Pharmacology, 2020

Semantic Scholar DOI PubMed


APA   Click to copy
Kozielewicz, P., Turku, A., & Schulte, G. (2020). Molecular Pharmacology of Class F Receptor Activation. Molecular Pharmacology.

Chicago/Turabian   Click to copy
Kozielewicz, P., Ainoleena Turku, and G. Schulte. “Molecular Pharmacology of Class F Receptor Activation.” Molecular Pharmacology (2020).

MLA   Click to copy
Kozielewicz, P., et al. “Molecular Pharmacology of Class F Receptor Activation.” Molecular Pharmacology, 2020.

BibTeX   Click to copy

  title = {Molecular Pharmacology of Class F Receptor Activation},
  year = {2020},
  journal = {Molecular Pharmacology},
  author = {Kozielewicz, P. and Turku, Ainoleena and Schulte, G.}


The class Frizzled (FZD) or class F of G protein–coupled receptors consists of 10 FZD paralogues and Smoothened (SMO). FZDs coordinate wingless/Int-1 signaling and SMO mediates Hedgehog signaling. Class F receptor signaling is intrinsically important for embryonic development and its dysregulation leads to diseases, including diverse forms of tumors. With regard to the importance of class F signaling in human disease, these receptors provide an attractive target for therapeutics, exemplified by the use of SMO antagonists for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Here, we review recent structural insights in combination with a more detailed functional understanding of class F receptor activation, G protein coupling, conformation-based functional selectivity, and mechanistic details of activating cancer mutations, which will lay the basis for further development of class F–targeting small molecules for human therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stimulated by recent insights into the activation mechanisms of class F receptors from structural and functional analysis of Frizzled and Smoothened, we aim to summarize what we know about the molecular details of ligand binding, agonist-driven conformational changes, and class F receptor activation. A better understanding of receptor activation mechanisms will allow us to engage in structure- and mechanism-driven drug discovery with the potential to develop more isoform-selective and potentially pathway-selective drugs for human therapy.


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